My home WiFi router is an ASUS RT-AC66U. It’s a great device with a tolerable manufacturer provided UI and quite a lot of advanced features. Though it’s marketed as a WiFi router I use it as a WiFi access point and switch, it doesn’t route. I have a Linux box that does that.

Since a lot of my devices are wireless a lot of my traffic flows through my WiFi access point. I wanted to be able to monitor that and graph things like how much traffic I’m doing over 2.4GHz vs. 5GHz etc.

At first there was SNMP

The device supports SNMP out of the box. And there’s an SNMP exporter for Prometheus. Match made in heaven! I set it up and sure enough I started to get data in and I quickly had a pretty dashboard up showing traffic going through the switch (so just wired) and what traffic was coming through 2.4GHz vs. 5GHz.

All was well until I ran a speedtest to see how that would manifest in the graphs. And manifest it did, albeit in a very unexpected way. The graphs flatlined. Completely dead. It seems that when it got busy handling lots of packets it stopped updating the SNMP counters for whatever reason. Once it caught up the counters would increment but not before. The scrapes didn’t appear to be failing so I’m fairly certain it’s an issue with how SNMP and the device were interacting.

Prometheus exporter

At that point I figured someone else might’ve written a Prometheus exporter that I could just run on my device. Since it runs the ASUSWRT-Merlin firmware and I have Entware at my disposal I can pretty much run anything on it.

Sure enough, someone wrote an OpenWRT exporter. I installed Lua, copied the code over and ran it. Unfortunately not everything worked out of the box so I found myself battling the Lua code in order to fix it. Lua is fairly easy to read but the string pattern matching kept tripping me up (the exporter was running commands and scraping the output). Though I managed to fix it after a few hours the rage it induced was enough that I decided I was just going to write some Go code myself instead.

MIPS and Go

Quick side bar here. A lot of home routers run on MIPS units with a Linux based operating system. It’s only since Go 1.8 that you can cross-compile to target a (linux) 32-bit MIPS device, Big or Little Endian.

However, for Go to be able to run it additionally requires the kernel to have access to a Floating Point Unit or for the kernel to provide FPU emulation. Most home routers don’t come with an FPU but most of the custom firmware at least have the kernel emulation enabled.

Once you’ve figured out if you can run Go code you can compile it with GOARCH=mipsle and GOOS=linux. Change it from mipsle to mips if your target is Big Endian.

Prometheus Node Exporter

Shortly after go geting the Prometheus client library it occured ot me that I should just be able to run the node exporter the Prometheus project has built. All I had to do was cross-compile it.

Though I hit a snag there too it was a very minor one that was quickly fixed by adding the appropriate build tags to one of the source files. Totally happy I scp‘ed the resulting node_exporter binary over to my router and ran it. Everything seemed to start up fine until:

FATA[0000] listen tcp :9100: errno -9   source="node_exporter.go:189"

Well. That’s not good. Error 9 here is “bad file descriptor”. Essentially what is going on is that the net.Listen() call that http.ListenAndServe does was failing to bind to the port.

The typical reason for this is that the port is already in use, but Go actually tells you when that’s the case. Whichever port I picked, verified free and what not, all I got is that error.

Searching a bit through the docs I found a tidbit on the Go wiki that says at least Linux kernel 2.6.23 is required. Logging in to my router I ran a uname -a and sure enough: Linux router #1 Wed Mar 29 00:41:07 EDT 2017 mips ASUSWRT-Merlin.

Damn. But that can’t be it, right? Nothing changed between 2.6.22 and 2.6.23 that could affect something as basic setting up a socket and binding to a port? At that point I should’ve just ran strace which would later on reveal why it was breaking but for whatever reason that didn’t occur to me. So what does one then do? Well… you use QEMU to emulate a 32-bit MIPS Little Endian unit and you install Debian stable on it! That comes with kernel 3.16 on which we’ll surely be able to reproduce this bug and file a report with the Go project.


Getting this to run on QEMU was painful. Between the outdated tutorials, QEMU’s help being quite overwhelming and rather unhelpful error messages it took an hour or so just to get everything to boot right.

For posterity:

  • Download the initrd.gz and vmdlinux from the installer-mipsel directory of the Debian package archive. Or mips if you want Big Endian because the el suffix obviously means Little Endian. Duh and or hello
  • Install QEMU
  • Create a disk: qemu-img create -f raw disk.img 10G
  • Format it: mkfs.ext4 disk.img
  • Boot it: qemu-system-mipsel -M malta -kernel vmlinux-3.16.0-4-4kc-malta -initrd initrd.gz disk.img -append "root=/dev/sda" -nographic -m 1024. Yes -M malta. Then it emulates the MIPS Malta which is what our kernel is targetting
  • Run through the whole installer (things will be slow)
  • Boot it and make SSH in the guest available as a port on the host: qemu-system-mipsel -M malta -kernel vmlinux-3.16.0-4-4kc-malta -hda disk.img -append "root=/dev/sda1" -nographic -m 1024 -net nic -net user,hostfwd=tcp::10022-:22

Once everything was up and running I copied over the compiled result of a tiny Go program that was just doing net.Listen(...) and ran it, fully expecting it to bork. It didn’t. Not a single issue.


At this point I was pretty annoyed. So it seems that something did indeed change between 2.6.22 and 3.16.0 that made this bug go away. Considering the wiki stated 2.6.23 and up should work, I should probably do this again with a 2.6.23 kernel and see what gives.

As I took a break and rambled about this a bit on IRC someone pointed out I should just strace it and see where it breaks. An opkg install strace later and sure enough: socket(AF_INET6, SOCK_STREAM|SOCK_CLOEXEC|SOCK_NONBLOCK, IPPROTO_IP) = -1 EINVAL (Invalid argument).

Turns out, FD_CLOEXEC (which is what SOCK_CLOEXEC is telling us to set) is new since 2.6.23, whereas the socket option itself was added in 2.6.27. What it does is set the close-on-exec flag on the file descriptor. This means that when we later call any of the exec*() family of calls we don’t leak those file descriptors to child processes. This is great, especially in things like long-lived servers, but unfortunately just setting the option instead of properly checking if we can do so means that any code that does a net.Listen() will break if ran on Linux with a kernel older than 2.6.23.

Now I could’ve stopped there but obviously not. I wanted to be able to run the Prometheus Node Exporter, and generic Go code, on that router. I could’ve picked Python, Perl, Ruby, rewrite it in Lua I could actually understand and all would’ve been over with. But where’s the fun in that?


Onwards to the next adventure, getting DD-WRT to run. When looking through the DD-WRT site I could only find really old builds but it turns out that what you should just get is the latest beta from their FTP. A quick browse through the forums showed that others had the latest version running on the AC66U without issue and that it came with a 3.10 kernel! After a few hours of frustration (it turns out you need to flash 26339 first otherwise your 5GHz will be broken) I finally had everything running.

Uploaded the compiled node exporter, ran it and nothing. It just hang there. A quick peak into dmesg and: FPU emulator disabled, make sure your toolchainwas compiled with software floating point support (soft-float) Turns out that for whatever the hell reason the DD-WRT builds aren’t built with FPU emulation enabled for MIPS. I don’t know why. It seems stupid and actually breaks a lot of things including other software available in Entware.

OK, now what

At this point, I’m kinda done. I can’t get it to run on the Merlin firmware b/c the code from ASUS it’s built on lacks FD_CLOEXEC and SOCK_CLOEXEC support. I could backport support for it but it’s unlikely a patch will get accepted since I’m probably the only person in the world who cares about being able to run Go code on the AC66U.

I can’t get it to run on DD-WRT b/c FPU emulation is missing. There is a way to use a different compile toolchain and gccgo to build Go programs for DD-WRT, apparently, but after having already spent more than a day on this that felt like another rabbit hole I just didn’t want to go down.

Back to SNMP

The reason I went down this rabbit hole in the first place is because I just wanted to be able to accurately monitor my WiFi access point. After some tea it occured to me that with any luck, SNMP on DD-WRT might actually behave properly and I could go back to just scraping it that way with the SNMP Exporter the Prometheus folks have built.

Turns out my hunch was right and I can easily scrape all the necessary counters every 5s with no meaningful impact on the router’s CPU usage, all while running a pretty impactful speedtest. The counters continue to correctly increment under heavy load and my graphs and gauges in Grafana reflect reality pretty near real-time.



In the end, I learned a few things:

  • Go 1.8 can compile to 32-bit MIPS, and it works but you need a Linux kernel >= 2.6.27, probably even 2.6.32 to be on the safe side
  • Even something that appears so basic, standard and boring on the outside can change, or gain a new feature that’s taken advantage of, in a kernel point release that .22 vs. .23 does actually matter
  • strace first, QEMU later
  • Flashing DD-WRT is a bit of an adventure, read the wiki and forum
  • Router firmware can have the most useful bits and bobs missing while, to me useless, other things are available
  • Sometimes you won’t be able to have your cake and eat it, but if you go back to basics you might still be able to claim victory

Once this unit gives out I think I’m going to do a bit more reasearch before I buy a new one. Find a modern unit, with an ARM CPU instead of MIPS and figure out if it’s missing anything else that I would need to run some Go code on it. I’d still want to run the node exporter on it as an exercise but I’d probably stick with SNMP in the future too if it works as expected.

SNMP, when it works, is pretty damn useful. DD-WRT also exposes a number of other things through SNMP that are useful to monitor for.

This does have me wanting to try to build my own router firmware/OS that, aside from the Linux kernel, has its components written in Go. With proper APIs and everything so you can automate it all. Seems like I have something to do during my next vacation :).


I’ve submitted a PR to the SNMP Exporter to add a ddwrt module that knows about all the OIDs DD-WRT exposes. Including a few more esoteric ones. Please comment/sent patches if you notice something’s wrong.

There’s now also a separate repository that I maintain with an snmp.yml for DD-WRT machines. It includes support for the OID entries that the script running on DD-WRT hooks into an obscure part of the tree. Until I’ve had time to write an actual MIB for it I can’t add support for it in the Prometheus SNMP exporter directly.